What is Alcoholism: Alcohol Dependence

Look psychiatry alcoholism (Alcohol and Drug Addiction)

View of today's psychiatry alcoholism, opposite to each other is evident in two models:
1) According to the model of the disease of alcoholism, like other diseases, a pathogenic agent (alcohol) is a condition resulting from physical interaction with the system and independent of the person's individual choice.
2) According to the model of integration, an alcoholic person to be prepared with personal preferences, in a sense, he has chosen to become an alcoholic.

Emergence as the content carried by contrasting the two models also have been a completely different scientific traditions. The disease model, other than the new. For the first time in 1960, was introduced by Jellinek. AA approach to alcoholism (1) teachings such as matching, recognition, and the spread of the disease model of psychiatry reflection of the success of AA has been put forward in the treatment of alcoholism. In a sense, physicians, alcoholism is a treatable disease, learned to AA. The first of the principles defined in the AA 12 steps "that we are powerless against alcohol and dream come out of control and we have accepted" the principle. This policy, the meaning of psychiatry, found that first recognized that the passage of familial alcoholism: genetic transition from individuals because of their drinking behavior of some physical properties can not control. Pathogenic (disease can evoke) as a factor in alcohol, taken by some people, then those people birsüre disease of alcoholism because of the physical properties are seen to occur. This understanding, disease-causing agent (alcohol) and are based on the interaction between biological structure. Disease reveals, not the cause of the disease itself, but it enters the interaction of biological systems. Genetic (or biological) predisposition, in the case of the emergence of the disease factors, people in the foreground.

(1) AA: Alcoholics Anonymus / Alcoholics Anonymous: the United States was established in 1935, a voluntary self-help group. Almost all of the members of this group of alcoholics in the world today is working in many countries. Members of the purposes to get rid of alcoholism.
Understanding of alcoholism as a disease, also consistent with the concept of a modern disease. We know today that the matter of infectious diseases, metabolic diseases, get the disease, reveals the biological interaction into the system to. For example, when a flu epidemic infected area hastalanmaz everyone. Spread the disease germs are some people in the group. Germs taken into the body interacts with biological systems (defense systems, the region's compliance is placed in the germ, the general body resistance, etc.).. Removing the germs of the disease be brought neutralized as a result, the disease yakalanılabilir getirilemeyerek neutralized. Or, for example, we know that fat heart arteries occlusive effect. However, until old age by eating plenty of fat there are many people living and non-cardiac veins problem. Is whether a biological predisposition to heart disease is important. In these cases, the disease has not been caught as a result of individual choice. Even though people may korumamış the disease itself. People want to be for heart patients do not eat fat. Or they want to be a little orange yiyorlarsa this flu
not to.

Here is also an alcoholic, according to the model of the disease, while alcohol seçmemiştir to be an alcoholic. Even though negligent in protecting itself from the end of such a davranmıştır.

Integration model, depending on the model of disease, alcoholism is a new concept had been used for much more. Basic approach to alcoholism for some reason the person is chosen. You may be conscious or unconscious choice (for older models, according to the moral conscious, unconscious, according to a new dynamic models). In this model, suggesting that alcoholism is a selection of theories emerged, from beginning to end, cause and effect relationships based on exhibits in a linear way of thinking. Integration model, disease model, such as alcoholism choice about whether this way of thinking farklılığıyla also divided into left. The disease model, emphasizing the interaction between two factors, fit model, the result of alcoholism, emphasizes the importance to reveal the causal wins. According to the person as a result determines causes, or rather a normal person, seeing this result movement reasons for not being an alcoholic, at least take precautions (for example, so do not drink). Yapmıyorsa it is inevitable that eventually an alcoholic. Here is an alcoholic that they are not doing it explains why some people adapt theories theories. The root of this approach is that the religious / ethical systems of thought is based. Results determine the causes, results on the full responsibility and religious systems, in addition to punishment or reward according to the result. Criminal reward system, but the basic idea of the reasons revealed by the results based on the principle of causality in this way of thinking in science over the centuries were decisive. Today, many existing theories still uses the principle of causality. The same reason leads to the same results, exploring the realities of these relationships reveals human logic.

Returning to alcoholism, XIX. century. mid, alcoholism is a psychiatric disorder to be expressed that the introduction was given to bring together the theories about alcoholism. First, some people become alcoholics, tried to explain the moral weaknesses. In other words, people made ​​their way to alcoholism değiştiremiyordu it because it was not enough spiritual strength. These types are holding their own in front of hazlarını everything, other people's desires to care öğrenememiş (basic principle of morality) bireylerdi. As a result, would become virtually an alcoholic. It uses the principle of causality, but only in theory, but the moral content of the relationship between religious systems, remains close. Morality as a bad idea that sets out the alcoholic ones. Today, many mental health professionals, this approach can easily söyleyebilecekleri benimsemediklerini case, practical approaches to the problem of alcoholism, in theory, sometimes it is followed. Of alcoholism on the development of certain persons, the "bad" social environment, the ground prepared by alcoholism, abuse psychological development of alcoholism is due to the fact that arguments always followed this approach. Conclusion (alcoholism) is bad, according to the poor must start.

Today is mostly adopted, theories to explain alcoholism, moral judgments of this sort of stands out as much as possible, neutral theories. There are a number of revealing the causes of alcoholism (biological, psychological, social). This causes the person is actually "normal" features that makes it difficult to live in harmony with the world. Person as an alcoholic, an existing make these properties more in line with the outside world relatively. People choosing alcoholism, in fact, it covers the underlying causes of a glimpse revealed. The disease, more precisely, the underlying disorder is not the alcoholism.

Biological approach, well-lit, some biological characteristics and brain chemistry disorders (particularly depression and anxiety) caused by alcoholism is driven forward. The research, some of alcoholism often seen with depression and anxiety was revealed. Anxiety sedative effects of alcohol and depression are known to fix. With this approach, a person is caught in anxiety or depression, alcohol will be highlighted by using the actual disorder yatıştırıl-yeast attempted.

Analytical approach, the childhood that was created in punitive süperegoyu yaşananlarla dengeleyemeyen ego with alcohol and alcoholism in the search for help.

The judge moral theories is now recovered from alcoholism. The person is not an alcoholic because of deficiencies in at least some moral kabullenilmiştir. Contact alcoholism drove away from the social structure is now also the theoretical moral judgments more focus on communication and education features. But the integration of theories studied in the model did not change the fact that alcoholism has not considered as a whole. Linear theory in the logic of its own until the full reasons for each conclusion izleyebiliyorken, research not start, lots of alcoholics put these theories remain standing outside. This is actually simply the different causes of the problem is not bütünleştirilememeleri with each other using statements. Case (alcoholism) is complex and dialectical interaction of many to arise (such as people in all cases). But the human mind tries to understand the dialectical relations by making them linear. As one can understand, not to accept such work. In this effort, the science to reveal a full effort on the one hand, one tries to understand people. "With" is complex, but again and again tries to understand people.

Alcoholism is used for the disease model of alcoholism while a description of what, of how a theoretical framework does. Explanatory theories in terms of developing the disease model is not a suitable model. Alcoholics, their unbridled desire to take an alcohol based on the basic jurisdiction. Why have such a feature that they are alcoholics in the girişmez explanations. Alcoholism is considered as a phenomenon in itself. Contemporary psychiatry is not about alcoholism alone, all the disorders of interest in the process of defining precisely this point.

Psychiatry, the disorder is considered to be all facts, describes the appearance on the basis of (phenomenological approach). During this identification, primarily because of disorder examined the changes in individuals. Psychiatric disorders / diseases without any theoretical explanation identifies only the appearance, two widely used diagnostic system is available. World health organization, Mental and Behavioral Disorders W in 1992, published by the ICD Classification and Diagnostic Criteria for DSM-IV American Psychiatric Association published in 1994. Both classification system is based on similar principles, such as the content is very similar in terms of the scan and the diagnostic criteria çalışılmışlardır formed. In the introduction of ICD 10, "here, and klavuzlards definitions. Making the most recent information on disorders, or do not claim to transfer theories. Simply the classification of mental disorders in many countries have agreed on a number of consulting will be the main symptom clusters of categories and descriptions of the boundaries are drawn" then the overall classification system summarizes the approach to a very nice. Alcoholism meets the DSM IV and ICD 10 chapter "alcohol dependence" is called. Alcoholism definition, a judge on the grounds that avoided expression. ICD 10 defines the dependence syndrome as follows:
"Article [alcohol] use that arise during the pre-value and the behavior of the person winning a priority in many physiological, behavioral and cognitive changes in a particular situation. The dependency syndrome is the main identifier character (whether or not medically recommended) psychoactive substances, alcohol, tobacco, desire to get the (often powerful, sometimes unbridled) to hear. Turning to a withdrawal again after a period of substance dependence syndrome symptoms more quickly than non-dependent individuals is said to out.''

DSM-IV substance [alcohol]-related disorders with the use of two reserves: use disorders, and disorders caused by the use of (2).

DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for seven rows without a common definition. Three or more of these criteria within the last 12 months have a clinically significant impairment or distress with being driven by a substance abuse [alcohol] as the user defines the pattern of dependency.

"1 As defined by one of the following tolerance is improved.
a) provide the intoxication or desired effect, the need for significantly increased amounts of substance use.
b) Continuous use of substances with the same amount as the provision of significantly reduced effect.
2. As defined by the withdrawal of the following to be developed.
a) The substance-specific withdrawal syndrome in question (3).
b) To get rid of withdrawal symptoms of the same substance [alcohol], or the like is taken.
3. Many times higher than the amount of substance is intended or shall be taken during a longer period.
4. Substance use is a constant desire to leave or to control or have wasted the effort. .
5. Provide an item (for example, driving long-term), substance use (eg drinking in a row), or spending too much time to get rid of the effects of the substance.
6. Because of substance abuse in social, occupational activities or assessment activities with time is left blank or reduced.
7. Alevlendirmiş may be caused by the substance or, as the existing continuous or repetitive manner resulting in a physical or psychological
(2) of Use for disorders caused by mental and physical disorders due to use of alcohol section.
(3) mental and physical disorders due to use of alcohol withdrawal syndrome section.

continued substance use despite knowing that the problem (for example, knows ulcer worsened despite the use of alcohol continue to drink). "
ICD 10 criteria, the DSM IV, ICD 10 is similar to only "a very strong desire to take the substance or zorlaniı" statement are the same as an ingredient. Request or difficulty of taking into account the finding of force must be objectively DSM-IV has not given this statement.
Both the ICD 10 and DSM-IV harmful use / abuse than use disorder have identified a so-called second. Meet this alcoholism, a condition marked by intense use of alcohol. ICD 10, "mental and physical health of the person using the substance has been damaged, so it should be diagnosed. Harmful use leads to various social problems and criticized by others," he says.
The following four criteria in DSM-IV criteria for dependence have not been met while the existence of one that requires adequate.

"1 at work, at school or at home or not should take the main responsibilities of the substance resulting in a repetitive manner [alcohol] use (for example, gidememe school because of alcohol use, truancy).
2. Physically dangerous situations in a repetitive manner substance [alcohol] use (for example, driving alkollüyken).
3. Article [alcohol] with the resulting legal problems associated with repetitive manner (such as behavioral disorders due to alcohol consumption as a result of arrests).

4. Caused by the effects of the substance or recurrent social or interpersonal alevlendirdiği continuous or continuous substance use despite problems (for example, matching the debate about the outcome of intoxication, physical fights). "

Harmful use or abuse of alcohol use is defined as a person rather than the situation facing health problems because of his period and describes the social frictions. Addiction is a concern, but this time much more severe, these problems are still there. Problems arising from alcohol use to be shaped around the person's entire life. Addiction determines the amount of alcohol used, but how is that person to have been using alcohol. Both the chemical effects of alcohol and alcohol-related lapses in other areas begin to emerge due to the increase of time too. Health is often neglected. Many health problems caused by alcohol itself, as there is no time to settle the existing health problems.

Basic hygiene requirements (such as tooth brushing) are frequently seen even met. Alcohol is used in time, perhaps some of the symptoms related to the health of the person to feel the effect of pain relief, but also may be blocking all of them, under the lack of time or notice or not its main cause seems to be more health neglect. Önemsenmemekte felt, time and effort spent for health care is perceived as unnecessary.
Close relations with the environment is often neglected in the same way again. Dependent, has to fulfill certain social obligations delay. For example, he has to attend meetings because of alcohol shrink from participating in, visits to the expected delay itself, minimizes close relations with the environment. Furthermore, he has to fulfill its responsibilities to the family of the failure occurred. Other people in the house, he had to do jobs that were undertaken.

The situation is the same as at work or at school. Alcohol use at work on the fallen person açıyordur aksatmasna way. From time to time may be in the form of inattendance work, but also occurs in the workplace are unable to work. At work or school environment, is managed by the chiefs has become.

Although, the addict often neglect the environment, the expectations are mainly determined by the changing of one's own life may seem. The principal change in the addict himself. Highlighted the general state of neglect, the person's conscious choice, not a lifestyle of addiction resulting in alcohol dependents and all up and down a specific style is similar to dependence. Addiction definition of addiction as a specific objective of this lifestyle is konmasıyla. Addiction determines how much or how long you are not using alcohol, how alcohol use affected person. Called the physical symptoms of addiction, withdrawal symptoms, the development of tolerance and dependence is not a sine qua non condition, only one criterion, such as other vital changes. Addiction, some generic words, "life, owned material dependent remodeling around" can be defined as.

Descriptive approach, the introduction part of the ICD 10, as well as psychiatric disorders, alcoholism, and therefore limits the line drawn in the final. This is necessary for the existence of a common language between psychiatry dealing with. Thus, alcoholism, alcohol addiction is mentioned, or rather should be understood what is put forward. Apparently, alcohol dependence, alcohol dependence denebileceğidir what to whom is not. Theoretical approaches must be explained again what is alcoholism.

Following the theoretical approach to the start of the causes of the disease model of alcoholism with koymamakla describes the formation as a result of factors that interact with each other. Alcoholism, as a result of reasons, not as a patient looks at the dynamic interaction born. Unlike the descriptive approach that examines what is alcoholism. The similarity is that considered a case of the alcoholism itself. In this descriptive approach, the dynamic model to identify cases of Views with observe a sacrifice. In his presentation of the disease will not be sufficient to identify an appearance. Explanation of the cases is also required. Causal explanations of a holistic approach based on the theories of the phenomenon of alcoholism koyamamaktadır. Still the same branch of science because of the differences in theoretical approaches to the different terminologies and even the existence of deep differences remain. On Alcoholism and many other psychiatric patients, revealing the causes, course of disease, treatment modalities and even very different opinions about whether the disease continues to maintain the existence of different views of their current method of testing for scientific research provides evidence of the scientific world.

Theories and models before the findings can be tested can be reached from observation and experimentation noktalandır most accurate motion. Forms of information institutions in the usage of this information, cause and effect relationship established in the limited oturmamasıyla a place to sit. Because of the established forms, a non-line of cause and effect lack the flexibility necessary to adapt the information. For example, alcoholism is an experimental result to revealing the properties of the interaction of psychosocial, biological, almost impossible to integrate into the model.

However, instead of cause and effect relationships envisages a dynamic approach to the formation of the XX being used in the world of science. century. finding its place in psychiatry at the beginning of the semester to lead to the radical changes in understanding. Analytical studies mental system is created (id, ego, superego), the operation itself performs with the segments that form dynamic interaction. Mental disorders occur as a result of the interaction of these three spiritual power. Süperegonun is not responsible for any mental disorder or just wast. The same approach, awareness, consciousness and the unconscious, the pre-stationary but continue their mutual interactions.

Over time, this approach is used to interpret the findings of biological psychiatry, for example derived innovations. Only the root of the theories of analytical psychology, such as it was transferred to a patent hakkıymış. Separate biological and behavioral psychiatry dynamic psychiatry that name remained. As if the human totality of learned behaviors and biological properties, such as the dynamic interaction girmiyormuş.

Alcoholism, during the formation of the human psychological factor in how much if you have defined in structure, occurs as a result of the participation of all of them (such as other mental disorders). This is a participation in the form of participation is not simply in order to be involved in the incident. Although our minds to avoid doing what the human spirit to make up all of them have more than one variable at each other during mutual interact and this interaction revealed by changing the pre-estimation of the system can not be the result of alcoholism. For example, take the psychological status of alcohol changes, changing psychological availability, received ideas about alcohol and alcohol alloy affects the next. In the meantime, bought alcohol for the brain chemical have been changes in working order, it also changes the psychological status. Psychological and neurochemical durumumla changing environment influenced by different perceptions by the way all of them in memory and it is possible to continue along these pages before reaching any conclusion. A variable that affects everything that impressed me, with me, I'm all about the result.

The disease in this model, all variables default incelenemeyeceği tells personal genetic predisposition. In fact, only the genetic switch that determines susceptibility, but also what happened on the genetic background. Psychodynamic psychiatry, emphasizes that theory. The disease has stopped on the mutual interaction model, it is possible to add different features to the system. Genetic predisposition to the disease model, emphasizing primarily psychological development but also as one of the determining factors in susceptibility to psychodynamic psychiatry has been added by the model.

Alcoholism in all this confusion, many different from each other (even if so how much alcohol), a dynamic process, a set of common outcomes. Alcoholism is something less obvious how. Reveals the process to remove him or her own different ways for each individual on the tracks. Instead of putting out the causes of alcoholism, for every alcoholic to examine the process of determining its alcoholic fade me, we have for today seems to be the only realistic approach.

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