What is Embryology of the parotid gland

Salivary glands, from the monitored organisms but varies between species. Only available in the parotid gland in mammals. Ectoderm of the oral cavity consists of all the salivary glands and oral epithelium proliferation in solid cell clusters as a result of the underlying mesenchymal tissue to form a draft of cloth with the correct occur.

The first draft of Primordium or organ, for the seventh embryonal week, appears in the parotid gland. Turning into the main channel of Primordium gland, the terminal secretory erosional channels form an expanding. Mesenchymal tissue surrounding glands and their surroundings, wrapping the capsule separates lobules creates

Developed a three-stage passes to Donath'a cloth. There is the first stage, primordium formation. Gland from an advanced stage of differentiation, monitored the formation of lobules and ducts. This phase continued until the end of the seventh month, allows the formation of functional units. Acinar cells in the third phase, beginning with the eighth month and be seen on intermediate channels.

With childbirth, with the effect of diet consists of salivary secretion. Erosion of the distal segments and channels around the myoepithelial cell, gradually decaying stages of organ development. After birth, these cells are composed of cells myoepithelial.

During fetal development of the parotid gland settles a large number of lymphocytes. This explains the frequent cause lymph nodes. In addition, drafts of the organ which is circling the cloth as a result of condensation in the lymph nodes. Salivary gland tissue in lymph nodes seen in the common. This is responsible for the development of embryonal tumors of the salivary gland cloth structures later. Parotid salivary gland occurring after the first growing but the capsule. Glands during the development of the autonomic nervous system and sympathetic nervous system stimulation of acinar differentiation, the parasympathetic nervous system is necessary for the development of the entire gland.

Anatomy of the parotid gland

In general, the major salivary glands (glandula salivariae majores) and minor (glandula salivariae minores) in two groups, including the salivary glands. Secretion and shedding in the oral cavity, located around the mouth, the salivary glands and a large symmetrical position of major salivary glands, oral cavity, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses and pharynx mucosa just below the minor salivary glands are common to those who settled in the small. Salivary secretion by salivary glands of the teeth, gums, protects the integrity of the mucosa of the oral cavity and plays an important role in initiating and digestion of starchy foods. Parotid, submandibular and sublingual salivary gland, including 3 pairs of major salivary gland major role in the production of saliva, which has existed. Minor salivary glands of up to approximately 600-1000 units in the production of saliva, there is a small contribution.

Parotid gland the largest salivary gland with an average weight 20-30gr. In craniocaudal mean 5.8 cm, 3.4 cm in size as ventrodorsal. Retromandibular fossa in front of and below the ear, the sternocleidomastoid (SKM) muscle is located in front of the parotid space.

Retromandibular fossa, ramus of the mandible in front, rear and the SKM mastoideus muscle, below and behind the back of digastric muscle belly, processus stilohyoideus and surrounded by muscles that starts from the ledge. Therefore, these structures are limited to the parotid gland, fossa completely filling out the front, above and below the front cross borders and reaches over the masseter muscle. In fact, the three sides cloth, with three faces, the prism likened to the two ends of the upper and lower. Pre-inner and inner faces of the back-formations retromandibular fossa, external facial skin, subcutaneous tissue, and is adjacent to platisma.

Parotid gland, parotid and deep cervical fascia superficial layers that make up the gap with the internal and external, are encapsulated. Superficial and deep lobe of the parotid gland of two is said to occur frequently. Many anatomists glandinda parotid surgery, but not a true anatomic division argues that appears acceptable in terms of convenience. Terms of superficial and deep lobe, medial and lateral soft tissues simply refers to the facial nerve.

20% of the facial nerve deep in the parotid gland tissue, 80% of the surface of the facial nerve, that is localized in the superficial. Superficial lobe of the gland, the posterior wall of the masseter muscle and ramus of the mandible and salivary secretion surrounds% provides 85-89'nu. Is a very vascularized, which is close to the deep lobe of the pharynx behind the mandible and mastoid ramusu reaching deep inside the front of the parapharyngeal space, behind the mastoid bone, styloid processes as part, SKM, and styloid muscles, and digastric muscle to the back part of the neighborhood and creates.

Radiologically, it is not possible to always display the facial nerve lobes defining, almost always on the path of the facial nerve is the retromandibular vein as a reference.

Parotid compartment, surrounded by a triangular space is surrounded by muscles, as well as the parotid gland, facial nerve and its branches, sensory and autonomic nerves, the external carotid artery and its branches, retromandibular vein (posterior facial vein), and includes the parotid lymphatics.

Translated from the boundaries of the parotid compartment structures:

Superior border: zygomatic arch,

Posterior border: the external ear, mastoid bulge and SKM muscle,

Inferior border: processes as part styloid, styloid processes as part muscles, internal carotid artery and jugular vein,

Anterior Border: zygomatic diagonal line extending from the outer ear canal.

Histology of the parotid gland

Salivary glands, the glands are tubular secretion and a duct on the outside structure out with the help of cloth are included in the group.

Salivary glands and stroma is composed of parenchyma. Parenchyma of the glands, secretions produced by erosion and electrolyte secretion, oral cavity, with the duct system that regulates the concentration of the water occurs. Parenchyma occurring in connective tissue stroma provides support. Stroma, blood vessels, lymph vessels, and is located in the salivary ducts. Some of the glands that make up the stroma of fibrous connective tissue that makes up the capsule. Connective tissue septa in the right lobe of the capsule gland. Salivary gland stroma is also rich in lymphocytes and plasma cells, these cells are immunoglobulin A (IgA) responsible for the production. Adhesion to basement membrane components on the secretory IgA and secretory IgA in the lumen in the form of ductal epithelial cells were released over.

Branched parotid, a salivary gland acinar structure and the serous type. Significant erosion of the basement membrane, surrounded by a serous epithelial cell groups consist of pyramidal-shaped. Basophilic nuclei and a basal epithelial cells (PAS-positive) and a cytoplasm filled with zymogen granules are. This cell is the number of secretory granules depends on the state. This is the primary enzyme in the starch granules are smaller than the water-soluble carbohydrates that break down amylase (ptyalin), respectively. Other enzymes such as lysozyme and lactoferrin found in the cytoplasm of acinar cells.

Secretory unit (salivary unit), asinus, myoepithelial cells, connective channels, secretory (lined channel) consists of channels and drainage canals. All salivary acinar cells contain secretory granules. Granules of this amylase in serous glands, mucous glands include the mucin.

Asinus is responsible for the construction of the primary secretion. Myoepithelial cells are contractile cells located around asinus and swagger through the secretory product pushing to help the drainage channels. The sympathetic system, myoepithelial cells are shown to carry the motor nerve. In addition, with the parasympathetic system is stimulated. This will help to ensure the movement of cells in the first contraction of the saliva.

Asinus lumen of the ductal system continues. Respectively, unifying, secretion (line channel) and creates drainage channels. Part of the neck, also called connective channel, carbonic small cuboid epithelial cells surrounded by the rich. These cells secrete bicarbonate and ductal lumen, the lumen is absorbed chloride.

Lumina of the simple cuboidal epithelial cells are surrounded by secretory ducts overhangs and recesses in the basal poles and numerous mitochondria are formed by cytoplasmic invaginations. The main task of the primary saliva ducts and modification of the active fluid secretion. These cells absorb sodium and potassium in the lumen and secrete secrete excessive hypotonic fluid. Salivary flow increases, decreases, and less elapsed time for the activation of these cells in a hypotonic saliva occurs. Drainage channels are responsible for taking out the organ secretions proximally and stratified simple cells, distally borders the columnar epithelium. Each discharge channel paved with non-keratinizing squamous epithelium by the oral cavity is opened. Oral mucosa before penetrating the Steno duct travels a short distance to the connective tissue in the face and neck. These channels around the elastic fibers, smooth muscle fibers, blood vessels, nerves and the parotid cup selection of the channel that drains close to the epithelial cells (cellula caliciformis) is located.

Parotid gland, a serous gland is completely unique, as well as the other one, also that the gland contains many fat cells, adipocytes / acinar cell ratio 1 / 1 'is. Gland parenchyma is increased fat tissue, especially in the 40s.

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