Anatomy of the parotid gland

In general, the major salivary glands (glandula salivariae majores) and minor (glandula salivariae minores) in two groups, including the salivary glands. Secretion and shedding in the oral cavity, located around the mouth, the salivary glands and a large symmetrical position of major salivary glands, oral cavity, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses and pharynx mucosa just below the minor salivary glands are common to those who settled in the small. Salivary secretion by salivary glands of the teeth, gums, protects the integrity of the mucosa of the oral cavity and plays an important role in initiating and digestion of starchy foods. Parotid, submandibular and sublingual salivary gland, including 3 pairs of major salivary gland major role in the production of saliva, which has existed. Minor salivary glands of up to approximately 600-1000 units in the production of saliva, there is a small contribution.


Parotid gland the largest salivary gland with an average weight 20-30gr. In craniocaudal mean 5.8 cm, 3.4 cm in size as ventrodorsal. Retromandibular fossa in front of and below the ear, the sternocleidomastoid (SKM) muscle is located in front of the parotid space.


Retromandibular fossa, ramus of the mandible in front, rear and the SKM mastoideus muscle, below and behind the back of digastric muscle belly, processus stilohyoideus and surrounded by muscles that starts from the ledge. Therefore, these structures are limited to the parotid gland, fossa completely filling out the front, above and below the front cross borders and reaches over the masseter muscle. In fact, the three sides cloth, with three faces, the prism likened to the two ends of the upper and lower. Pre-inner and inner faces of the back-formations retromandibular fossa, external facial skin, subcutaneous tissue, and is adjacent to platisma.


Parotid gland, parotid and deep cervical fascia superficial layers that make up the gap with the internal and external, are encapsulated. Superficial and deep lobe of the parotid gland of two is said to occur frequently. Many anatomists glandinda parotid surgery, but not a true anatomic division argues that appears acceptable in terms of convenience. Terms of superficial and deep lobe, medial and lateral soft tissues simply refers to the facial nerve.


20% of the facial nerve deep in the parotid gland tissue, 80% of the surface of the facial nerve, that is localized in the superficial. Superficial lobe of the gland, the posterior wall of the masseter muscle and ramus of the mandible and salivary secretion surrounds% provides 85-89'nu. Is a very vascularized, which is close to the deep lobe of the pharynx behind the mandible and mastoid ramusu reaching deep inside the front of the parapharyngeal space, behind the mastoid bone, styloid processes as part, SKM, and styloid muscles, and digastric muscle to the back part of the neighborhood and creates.


Radiologically, it is not possible to always display the facial nerve lobes defining, almost always on the path of the facial nerve is the retromandibular vein as a reference.


Parotid compartment, surrounded by a triangular space is surrounded by muscles, as well as the parotid gland, facial nerve and its branches, sensory and autonomic nerves, the external carotid artery and its branches, retromandibular vein (posterior facial vein), and includes the parotid lymphatics.

Translated from the boundaries of the parotid compartment structures:


Superior border: zygomatic arch,

Posterior border: the external ear, mastoid bulge and SKM muscle,

Inferior border: processes as part styloid, styloid processes as part muscles, internal carotid artery and jugular vein,

Anterior Border: zygomatic diagonal line extending from the outer ear canal.

1 comment:

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