Temporal bone

Sides of your head, between sfenoidle occipital bone, parietal bone under the couple found that, prior to the birth occurred in three separate parts:

Pearl (squama) part of
Tympanic part
Part of the pyramid, or rock

Combined with each other during the development of these three tracks Dölyatağıiçi constitute the bone. After the birth of the unification of these three pieces are found in scars, suture.
Development; temporal'in pyramis'i newborn; major axis of the rear base of the pyramid is a forward and inward direction.

A vertical slide of the bone in Pars squamosa is dışyanmda pyramis'in top and are joined with him petrosguamosa fissure.

The tympanic part of the upper part of the public in the form of a bone is missing from the lower and outer side pyramis'in the two ends are combined with pars squamosa.
Later pyramis squama develops slowly and most base form, with the pars typanica'âa pyramis'in will change. Pyrams'in very thick base and nozzle by way of pars coming in and the spaces in the lower part of skuamanın mastoidea takes the form of the pyramid also combines with the open top in the shape of the ring and pars typanica takes the form of a groove and then we'll see some walls, bottom and rear walls of the front path dışkulak does. In this way the upper wall of the pars squamalis'den occurs, so that the temporal shape adult is quite varied. A temporal Erişgin şahısda 1) pars squamalis, 2) pars petrosa, 3) as the three tracks are mastoidea pars.

This is part of the bone, these three will be reviewed separately.

1. Pearl (Skuama) fragment; Outside flat into a semicircle outside the other is a part of this internal (endocranial) with two faces has a circumference.
Kafadışı face, this face with the top two-thirds one-third of sub-section, the first prominent horizontal ridge, is called the zygomatic prominence, which is one of the ledge the other is transverse to the length of the front to the back has two parts.
The top-down cross-section of the upper face of a depressed groove in the form of front to back. Lower the front to the back side of the temple into a convex bulge is called lokması or joint tubercle. Zygomatic the ledge with the transverse part of the front to the back part of the length of the junction of the most prominent place. Transverse zygomatic part of the ledge, front to the back portion separates into two: the front part, is free from front to back length and breadth basıkçadır; outer side convex, concave inner surface, the upper edge of this part of the actual process of blunt zygomaticus'dur sharp lower edge.
The front overhang of the free-end gear is combined with the temporal bone, zygomatic zygomatic arch complete.

Zygomatic temporal chunking of the rear overhang part, supramastoidea crest, before the name is located in a line up the flat after a sharp piece of skuama moved around to the back goes up.

Part of the external surface of temporal bone zygomatic skuama remaining on the part of the overhang, is convex and pürtüksüz pit temple to help the whole head, traces can be seen on the deep temporal arteries.
The remaining portion under the overhang part of the zygomatic Skuama, just now you said is related to the temporal skull base lokmasından (articular tubercle), another name of his hole, the axis of the mandible behind the front to the back outside to the inside and shows an elliptical depressions. Transverse slit in the middle of this pit, Glaser cleft (fissure petrotympanica) and divides it into two pits, the front portion of articular surface (facies articularis) is related to the joint is called the temple is located in skuama piece of them.

Glaser cleft behind the tympanic portion of the arthritic bone piramis olmıyarak piece is inside the border.

Intracranial face; Temporal bone skuama piece, in the recesses and protrusions in the face of intracranial brain to comply with the curves and grooves of the brain between them, still to be seen on the face of this vessel in the brain membranes in the troughs of the artery and its branches are meningica media.
Skuama circumference, attached to the bottom of this environment, the other two sections above can be reviewed independently.
Stuck behind division mastoidle sometimes without a trace, sometimes called a suture or suture can be seen mastoideosquamalis.

pyramis ahead with the merger, can be seen easily with the outside of cleft Glaser, the interior of this merger is with petrosquomalis fissure.
Two-thirds of a circle is the free part of the environment. In this environment the detriment of the lamina interna was cut from the inside out ahead kalemvari sphenoid wing with a large, if the above joint makes parietalle suture.

2. Part of the pyramid, or rock; Temporal bone this part; axis from front to back and inside out, cut the top of the front and rear inside and outside the base, quadrangular pyramid shape. Four faces of the pyramid, dörtkenarı, base and top will be reviewed. So two of the four front-upper, rear - headroom is in the top of the other two front - lower back - look at the bottom and head outside.
Pre-upper face, the face of a third of the back and front sections of two-thirds from the top of the inner ear caused by a semi-circular canal there is a ridge that is called eminentia arcuata. With a slit the length of the ledge in front of this, it extends forward a olukçuk and its outer side, is a second smaller olukcuk.

Near the top of the pyramid, a form of depression can make a finger, are pitting. Piyeste, who had settled in this çukurcuğa Gasser ganglion. Gasser called çukurcuğu.
This face in front of the eminentia and dışyanında arcuata'nın name tympani receives the remaining part of the lieutenant. A thin wall of the middle ear bones that make up this part of the wall built on top of the fissure is located in the petro-squamosa.

Rear-top face, a little before the middle of this side has the mouth of içkulak way. Continuing through the Bottom of this ağzm içkulak upper few millimeters and a length behind, called the fossa subaraıata are pitting.

However, a one and a half inches behind the mouth of içkulak way to trace a nail-like recess at the foot of the vestibular kanalcığının içkulakla are inside the mouth.

Front-bottom face, two-thirds of the face and the outer portion of the back bone to say in the development of the front wall of the tympanic bone, belongs to the path dışkulak a thin bone lamina consists of a slight concave and slippery. It also said part of the bone skuama mandibularis''in fossa, Glaser cleft behind the temple and had nothing to do with the joint belongs to the section. This bone laminin, styloid projection extending downward to wrap the bottom half of the section is called the processus vaginalis. The front section of the lower edge of the bone slide, called crista temporalis takes part and makes a sharp lower edge pyramis'in.
The remaining parts of the face in front of this bone laminin front lower part of the combined Skuama pyramisle bone at the top of this angle is an angle of one of the top of the other one is the lower of two small tubes, called Canalis musculotubalis similar to the tip of the double barrel channels in the upper half of the musculus tensor piyeste ortakulağın tympani'si is comprised of the underlying bone is the part of the tract Eustache. The two halves of the channel in front of the front lower face pyramis'in shows that this narrow groove in a groove the whole skull, sphenoid wing, combined with large and constitute a wide groove in the cartilage portion of pipe adjacent to the piyeste Eustache.
Rear-lower face; percent deemed this sort:

1) back to base pyramis'in united but separate from it, appears as ernbriyolojik protruding styloid. (This is the hyoid bone as the bone is related ernbriyolojik);
2) a hollow in the ledge behind it and it opened the mastoid foramen siylomastoideum (pyramis this hole in the bottom hole of the Fallopian canal);
3) styloid içyanında round the ledge, and a concave hole (foramen jugulare'yi this cup will do the whole head);
4) and the end of this cupping dışyanında a hole in a gutter;
5) in the jugular pit in front of the mouth of the external carotid canal;
6) Jacobson, kanalcığının between carotid through the external jugular pit hole;
7) carotid canal in front of the rough surface has a rough surface, the tip of the pharynx Eustache up part of the cartilage tube, soft palate, musculus levator muscles parent adheres to the Palatine.
Edges; Pyramis'in the top, front, rear and bottom are to be dörtkenarı.
The upper edge of the sulcus superior crista pyramidis piyeste petrosus seen in the sinus.
When the front edge, rear Glaser cleft, leading to the junction and head of the entire piece of temporal skuama pyramis with part of the angle in the spina ossis sfenoidis'in are settled.
The whole of the front edge of the front part of the skull through the foramen lacerum'u yapmağa help.
Behind the rear edge of the fossa jugularis jugularis'in indsura name on the back of the border area and dışyan shows a notch. The notch in the back of the head combined with the ragged hole in the whole occipital'in will co-notch. This is a small notch, divided into two sharp thorns.
Many times in front of the notch on the rear edge of the triangle is in the form of pitting fossula petrosa it had a name to the bottom of the hole is opened, such as cochlear outer kanalcığının piyeste Andersche ganglion is located within the pitting.
Lower edge, to distinguish them from the bottom of the back of the rear face of pyramis'in front lower part of the tympanic bone, we have seen before that the lower front face of the sharp lower edge of the lamina crest tympanica name. More drama in the front part of the cartilage part of the pipe, the groove has Eustache.

Base; Pyramis'in merged with part of the mastoid bone to the base of the whole immediately, only at the level of this merger in the face of the temporal bone dışyan dışkulak way to the mouth of his successor, the dışkulak ways. This Porus, the major axis of the elliptic form is true from top to bottom and front to back a little. Dışkulak way up the wall of the front bottom and rear walls of the tympanic bone skuamanın occurred.
Pyramis'in truncate the inner hole of the carotid canal (apertura interna canalis carotici) shows.

Hill, head of the whole body of the sphenoid wing, the angle between the entered, Pyramis'in tepesiyle, sphenoid wing, body, and a large gap between the circumference of which is indented. Torn hole in the front of the name, this range is called the sphenoid lingula divided into two parts with a pointed protrusion; içyandaki in the drama department is located in the internal artery caroüs; dışyandaki part is closed with a connective tissue is passed through the Nervi petros.

3. Mammiform part, this part of the temporal part of the back-and dışkulak way down the back; 2 / 3 section, with front and interior side pyramis, 1 / 3 section, with front and dışyanda skuama compound; kafadışı the face of it, an intracranial face the circumference of a
Outer surface, on the face, sometimes instead of a merger with petrosa pars pars squamalis'in the suture mastoideosquamalis is no longer owned. This is steep: ş'n direction, back to front and top to bottom.
The outer surface of the mastoid part 3 / 4 rear and lower portion, the neck muscles of a part of the seal shows pürtüklülük, seen as close to the middle of the back edge of foramen mastoideum'dur holes. Mastoid part 1 / 4 front - the upper part is quite flat, where dışkulak yolunur, on the back and called spina suprameatum a small spinose ridge, immediately behind it, the average width of one centimeter square, perforated, and there is a field kalbursu.
The lower part of the outer surface of the mastoid segment, shows a downward protrusion, bulge, called the mastoid on the ledge dışyan face, the neck muscles pürtüklülük of adhesion bonds, as shown in the face of the ledge içyan biventer'in musculus off the back part of the stick, from the front-pearl mastoidea ideally located in a slot called, the more the inner side of this cleft, however, from front to back in the groove, passing through the artery is called piyeste (arteriae occipital sulcus).
Internal face: This is a concave depression in the whole of the head, the head space in the rear part of the occipital fossa crane to help. On this side, top to bottom and back to front direction, an S-shaped curve showing the groove, is called the sigmoid groove, the groove on the coast and back towards the center of the hole, the foramen mastoideum'un inner hole.
Around the mastoid segment; petrosa ahead with pars and pars squamosa parietal above, in the back and bottom eklemleşir occipitalle.
Temporal'in internal structure, within the bone: 1) entering the space structure of the ear. 2) carotid canal, 3) have the nerve channels.
1) entering the gaps in the structure of the ear are:
a) Dışkulak way
b) the middle ear (tympanic cavity and Eustache Ortakulağın pipe in pyramis: antrum and mastoid cells, mastoid is in part, they are betting the ear is reviewed.)
c) İçkulak (içkulağın bone fragment is in the ear pyramis bet is read.)
d) İçkulak path (içkulak way to read part of the bony labyrinth of the bone called the içkulağın also briefly review here lüzumludur içkulak way.)
içkulak way, this road called Porus acousticus internus, the rear-upper side of the oval form is pyramis'in mouth, the axis is curved from front to back and from the inside out: in piyeste statoacusticus nerve, facial nerve, nervus intermedius in the vestibular ganglion, the bottom of this road içkulakla is adjacent to a transverse crested the top and bottom are divided into two parts. Front and rear, including the top piece has two alancık; front alancıkta Falîop channel (facial nerve canal) is the beginning, with facial nerve enters into the hole is where the nerve intermedius'un pyramis; bottom will be the top - back in the holes and the area alancığı vestibularis takes utriculoampuüaris name; dalcıklar here will make up the balance nerve.

The bottom of the lower part of the way İçkulak alancık front and rear there are two, both of them perforated. Rear; vestibularis saccularis area, in front; tractus spiralis is foraminosııs name of which make up the yarns will be a hearing and balance nerves.

2) Carotid canal; interna'taa carotid artery passes through this channel, the back of the pyramid - the bottom because of the apertura externa canalis carotici begins with a vertical rise, and before and after a few millimeters, making an elbow doğrulur forward and inward, and the aperture at the top of the pyramid cut carotici ends with the internal canal.

3) Carotid - tympanic canal, carotid canal wall of the rising part of the starting dışyan the blood, thin and short piece of the front wall of the tympanic ortakulağın goes in, the same name has the nerve and artery.

4) Falloppia channel; İçkulak way to the top of the bottom - beginning with the front of the foramen stylomastoideum'da alacığından ending in this channel, there are intermedius nerve with facial nerve. This channel pyramis lead through the three separate line, among them three-section shows two elbows.
The first part is 3 to 4 millimeters is a little forward and outward direction is vertical and pyramise.
The second part is up to an inch, back toward the outside and down a bit, almost parallel to the pyramid indicates a situation.
Between these two parts, the first bend of the channel there is, on the front of the upper pyramis'in are combined with the hiatus canalis facialis Nervi.
The third part of the channel is up to 10-15 miimetre, second elbow between the second section, starting your own foramen stylo-mastoideum'da ends with a vertical direction.

5) Jacobson, channels, Fossa jugularis'le canal caroticus'un d: Work from the hole, the hole is located in the bottom of this channel. This channel is starting up and dışyana toward the hole, part of the lower wall of the tympanic ortakulağın opens.

6) kanalcığı mastoid; Fossa jugularis'in, dışyan wall and a thin groove on the tip of the small tubes in the starting hole, and combines with the last part Falloppia channel.

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