Psychoactive Substances Abuse

Psychoactive substances are substances or chemicals that affects the central nervous system (CNS) effect. National Institute on Drug Abuse defines drug use or drug addiction as a condition of use of licit and illicit drugs causes physical, mental, emotional or social harm. By using drugs to interfere with a person's ability to function in daily living and working environment. Relationships with family and friends is compromised and dysfunctional.

Most of the abuse of drugs are divided into two major categories of the CNS and CNS stimulants. In the CNS, including narcotics, sedatives, barbiturates, sedatives and inhalants. The desired effect on consumer confidence has increased a feeling of euphoria, relaxation and reduction of pain and fear. CNS stimulants are amphetamines, cocaine and hallucinogens. The desired effect on consumer welfare, alertness, anxiety, pride, and more initiative.

Tolerance for the drug leads to the need for volume and physiological and psychological dependence on drugs leads to increased inappropriate behavior. Attempts to stop or control drug use leads to withdrawal symptoms, if untreated, can range from feeling flu-like unconsciousness and possibly death. Discontinuation of the drug produces feelings and emotions, the exact opposite effect of drug use. Drawings can be treated to avoid withdrawal symptoms. Chronic abuse of psychoactive substances can lead to complications, including pulmonary embolism, respiratory infections, trauma, musculoskeletal disorders, psychosis, malnutrition disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, hepatitis, thrombophlebitis, bacterial endocarditis, gangrene and coma.

The reason drug use is complex and includes a number of factors including the nature and availability of drugs, the type of personality, environmental factors, pressure, coping skills for individuals, genetic factors and socio-cultural influences. Dependence on cocaine is considered in relation to a lack of the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine. The use of drugs and medications can affect the biochemical factors of the body's own production of opium in these substances.

The psychological factor that seems common to all forms of drug use is low self-esteem. Were also feelings of inadequacy, loneliness, shame and guilt, leading to depression and feelings of hopelessness and unemployment prospects. Socio-cultural factors have a significant impact. More and more people suffering from a broken family and the breakdown, school failure, poverty, unemployment, life in the fast lane, and the stressors associated with a highly competitive environment. Adolescents and young people often begin to experiment due to the pressure and easy access to medicines.

Care Plan assessment and physical examination
Physiological signs of intoxication or use varies depending on the material. Therefore, when a person is in a state of intoxication or withdrawal, it is important to know what medications or drugs, the route is used and, if possible, a number of drugs. Determine if alcohol is used because it has a synergistic effect that enhances the effects of both drugs. Some patients may misuse and abuse of psychoactive substances in the dark. Others may have started to use them as part of the physician prescribed treatment regimen, and then became addicted. If a person is not a story of an overdose of a friend, or family members can provide information needed to provide and wear can be checked for drug use. Get a history of previous detoxification treatments, efficacy, duration of use, and influenced by a return to drug use.

If the patient is recorded with poisoning and drug history can be obtained signs and symptoms may be indicators of the type of drug. Make sure the patient has evidence that the drug will be used as the needle marks Mainline, nasal irritation caused by sniffing, sores on the lips, tongue chewing, cellulite injecting drug use and lack of ear infections and locations are used for mainline .

Learn how the patient sees the influence of drugs on his life, work and relationships with family and friends. Strengths and weaknesses. Evaluation of emotional status of the patient before the admission, for particular attention to depression and suicidal thoughts. If the patient is part of the relationship, to determine the degree of stability. Ask if your partner is using drugs and their attitudes towards drug use on the patient. If the patient is older, the age of the children to identify and examine how drug use by children suffering of the patient.

Find a service history, including the nature and duration of the work. Determine how the use of drugs in the working life of the patient. Determine how much time away from work caused by drug use. Creating a history of the financial consequences of drug use, asks how the patient spent on drugs and if he or she has developed other sources of income other than work. Determine how a drug is a patient's financial resources.

Plan for head nurses Nursing Diagnosis: Self-esteem disturbance related to immaturity, personal vulnerability.

Care plan interventions and treatment
The primary objective reception depressed person in custody of an overdose or withdrawal. Long-term goal is for patients to remain drug free. In the acute phase, the immediate effects of the drugs showed naloksoon (Narcan). In the case of an overdose of barbiturates, the patient is conscious, mild intoxication treated hiring more severe cases, the dream away. "Benefits should be treated in the acute or intensive care environment, which can be performed continuous monitoring. Necessary adequate airway, breathing and movement concerns during depressants can cause severe respiratory depression.

Generally, if the patient is unconscious and the substance is not known, the following procedural steps: (1) Start of supplemental oxygen (2) intravenous infusion of glucose saline solution in water, and (3), dextrose and administer thiamine naloksoon (4) for Protection of the airway with endotracheal intubation (5) prior to orogastric tube cleaning and administering activated charcoal (6) to take the patient for continuous monitoring. Activated carbon is produced by destructive distillation of organic material. The powder absorbs toxins from its large external pores and large internal surface, which bind the toxic ions. Catharsis as magnesium citrate get help on gastric secretion toxic substance linked to the active carbon. Activated charcoal was also in cases where the benefits are known compounds, such as phenobarbital, carbamazepine, tricyclic antidepressants, amphetamines and cocaine.

Control of stimulants may be similar to that of the damping, the administration of activated charcoal. Attacks are possible in case of an overdose, a stimulant, but note that amphetamines and cocaine a short period of 2-4 hours. Phenytoin (Dilantin) may be ordered seizure activity occurs, and benzodiazepines are used and angry, and attacks on the deal. External cooling can be used to reduce hyperthermia and intravenous fluids can be used to replace fluid loss and myoglobin in the kidneys. All patients with drug use and benefits of counseling and therapy to manage their patterns of substance use.

During the acute phase, the patient safely. Using strategies for the continuous monitoring of airway, breathing and circulation, and implement emergency measures are needed to stay alive. Monitor for seizure activity and the location of the patient's seizure action mode. Research on environmental health hazards such as falling out of bed or cancellation line. Evaluation of the potential for suicide attempt and, if necessary, and taking steps to suicide and never leave the patient unattended.

Learn self-care deficits related to hygiene, nutrition and elimination. Promoting a sense of security, access to the patient in a quiet, non-threatening and unbiased manner. Building a trust with the patient forms the basis for addressing long-term goals to be drug-free in this process.

After the acute phase of the recovery process and begin the implementation of a treatment to maintain abstinence. The first objective is to work for individuals to escape from the denial of drug use and responsibility for the repair to complete. Providing educational materials and chemical abuse counselor for consultations in the process of release of the first intensive care environment. Often individuals acute care settings or outpatient facility where nurses and other caregivers can begin to specialized treatment programs. These programs include affiliate programs, confrontation, support and hope to become part of the healing process. Treatment goals include the development of healthy self-esteem, self discipline, adaptive coping strategies, strategy, improving interpersonal relationships and ways to fill free time without using drugs.

The patient should be discharged into the studio or outpatient treatment program for long-term consequences of drug use and illiteracy. Following the release of the treatment programs, people stay with groups such as Anonymous (NA), Cocaine Anonymous (CA) or Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). Family dynamics often play a role in drug use. It is important that the family should be included in the plan of treatment through individual and family therapy and support groups dealing with issues of family members who abuse drugs.

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