Headache is a condition where a person feels pain or discomfort anywhere on the face, neck and head. The brains and the skull is not a source of headaches, because they lack pain-sensitive nerve endings contain. The source of headache nerve endings in the scalp, face, neck, head and muscle cells at the base of the brains. If one of these nerve endings due to stress, muscle tension, inflammation or enlargement of blood vessels in the head, one feels the pain.

Doctors have described more than 130 different types of headaches. These can be divided into primary and secondary headaches. Primary headaches are those in which the headache is not caused by trauma, infection or other diseases, but rather as a sort of problems in the relationship of the brains of the body. These include migraine, tension headache, cluster headache and headache is ordinary. Secondary headaches are caused by injury or illness. There are at least 300 known causes of secondary headaches. The main types of secondary headaches post-traumatic headaches, sinus, headache and the headache came back reactive. It is possible to more than one type of headache.

Headaches can vary in location, severity, duration and quality (dull, piercing, throbbing, etc.) depending on the cause and type of headache. The main characteristics of the main types of headaches are described below.

Primary headaches:

• Migraine: Migraine is caused by abnormalities in the central nervous system, leading to swelling of blood vessels in the brains and severe pain. Pain affects only one side of the head in 60 percent of cases and is often accompanied by nausea, vomiting and extreme sensitivity to light. There are two major types of migraine: migraine with aura (visual disturbances such as headaches) and migraine without aura. A person can become ill one to two days.
• Tension headaches: This is characterized by a feeling of tightness or pressure in the head and often accompanied by muscle tension in the neck. Tension headaches may occur on a daily basis, or just randomly. They usually take several hours.
• headache: Cluster headaches are severe and very painful headaches that occur several times a day of the month and then go away for a long time. They are the rarest type of primary headache.
• Frequent headaches: Some physicians believe that the current headache is actually a mild form of migraine. These headaches usually random and not related to head trauma or other disease, and usually disappears with rest pain and mild pain.

Secondary headaches:

• Post-traumatic headaches, post-traumatic headaches occur at most 88 percent of people with closed head injury and 60 percent of people with injuries of the cervical spine. This type of headache involves pain in the neck and shoulders, dizziness, mood swings or personality changes and sleep disturbances.
• Sinus Headaches: These are associated with post-nasal drip, sore throat and nasal swabs. Pain Sinus headaches are usually experienced in front of the face and head, and is usually worse at night than later in the day.
• headache response: headache caused by combustion reaction
environmental or other illness. There are hundreds of potential leads to the weather, pollen, dust and other allergens, colds, flu, because the eye fatigue and upset stomach.
• Rebound Headache: Rebound headache is a reaction to the overuse of over-the-counter medications for pain relief, decongestants, and muscle tension. They can be caused by withdrawal from alcohol or caffeine.

Headache is a common problem in the general population. Almost everyone gets a chance to headache, especially when a lack of sleep, emotional stress, missed meals, or suffer from cold or flu. headache in children and adults can receive six years, 31% of the children at least one headache is when the child is fifteen, the number increased to 70%. Between 60 and 80 million Americans suffer from frequent headaches, but only 30 percent of these people consult their doctor for treatment.

According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), children in the United States miss 1,000,000 days of school each year due to headache, and 160 million adults are missing days of work. Headaches cost the economy $ 30000000000 per year in medical costs. Headaches affect people of all races equally, but the sex ratio depending on the type of headache. Women are three times more men suffer from migraines, but men are ten times more likely than women to get headaches.

Nursing plan for the signs and symptoms

The main causes of headaches are disorders of the central nervous system, causing inflammation of blood vessels in the head, tension in the muscles of the head and neck infections, allergens and other environmental water, excessive drug use or withdrawal, sleep deprivation, clenching or teeth grinding , menstruation, depression or anxiety, some food and head injuries.

A rare but dangerous cause headaches include:
• Brain Tumors
• Stroke
• brain infection (encephalitis or meningitis)
• Burst blood vessels in the brains

Besides headaches, people can experience nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and other gastrointestinal complaints, dizziness, loss of balance and visual disturbances, mood swings and personality changes, extreme fatigue, muscle spasms in the neck and shoulders, inability to concentrate, and extreme sensitivity to light or noise.

Nursing plan for the diagnosis

Headache diagnosis may be difficult because there are so many possible causes, and some people have more than one type of headache. Besides the treatment of the patient's head, neck, mouth and throat, in the office, most doctors have a patient's headache diary notes and keep asking when the headaches occur, how long the other symptoms associated with the headache, quality and location of pain, possible leads, and other diseases that the patient is at the moment. In some cases, the physician gets a CT scan (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head of the patient. As encephalitis or meningitis is suspected a physician Spinal Tap.

Nursing Care Plan discussed

Treatment depends on the type of headache. Secondary headache treated by eliminating or avoiding the main reason or the head or neck, the environment can cause food allergies, overuse of alcohol and medication, sinus infection can cause eyestrain or other problems.

Primary headaches are usually treated with appropriate medication

• Migraine can be treated with medication should be taken before the attack to stop or reduce the severity, or medication taken to relieve the headache once it begins. Preventive medicine includes a group of drugs that travel now, some antidepressants and anticonvulsants. After the launch of his headaches, the patient can be treated with painkillers by the Exchange paracetamol, ibuprofen or naproxen or prescription medications such as ergotamine. Most patients with migraine can be helped to relax in a quiet dark room.
• tension headache: usually respond well to in-the-counter analgesics or prescription painkillers with codeine. Hot showers and rest are also recommended for self-care at home. Some patients are helped by biofeedback, relaxation, yoga or massage therapy. In some cases, your doctor may recommend psychotherapy, where patients are headache associated with emotional stress.
• Cluster headache: Gaza is currently employed in the treatment of cluster headaches in many patients, such as oxygen inhalation. Because cluster headache are often very fast, it is usually travel time given by injection rather than orally.
• Simple headaches are usually administered in the same way as a tension headache.

Nursing plan projections

Weather headache depends on primary or secondary and the main reason or reasons. Most headaches can be treated at home with a few long term side effects and complications. Headache, recurrent migraine and tension requires a long-term monitoring of the UPS. Difficult to successfully treat headache or migraine or recurrent headaches, tension.


People can increase the risk of headache in several ways:
• A lot of rest, healthy food without paying for meals and exercising regularly.
• Delete to work or study break, especially when working on the computer or reading for a long time.
• eyes checked regularly, especially if you wear glasses or contact lenses prescription.
• Avoid excessive use of the exchange more pain, decongestants, caffeine or alcohol.
• Stop smoking.
• Practice relaxation techniques, yoga, meditation and other approaches to stress management.
• Avoid allergens, foods, or other factors known to cause headaches whenever possible.

The future

Headache is the ongoing health problem in the general population, because just because there are so many possible causes and environmental water. Research into the causes of migraine late 1990's brought new ideas. Clinical trials include studies into the causes of headaches that are not well understood, the evaluation of new drugs with triptans in migraine and cluster headaches, studies of factors affecting the prognosis for recovery from headaches, studies comparing different treatments for rebound headaches and treat studying yoga , acupuncture, massage and other alternative treatments.

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