Pneumonia is a severe inflammation of the lungs where alveoli, tiny bubbles filled the air in the lungs that oxygen from the air is usually filled with fluid or pus. For this reason, inflammation, that person is not enough oxygen in the blood to the needs of body tissues to meet. Furthermore, disease organisms responsible for most cases of pneumonia, spread from the lungs into the bloodstream and infect other vital organs, which causes death in humans.

Pneumonia least thirty different reasons. Although most cases of pneumonia caused by bacteria, viruses or other organisms, disease, illness may result from non-infectious causes such as chemical damage to the lungs, accidental food or saliva into the airways or even allergies to substances in the air.

Pneumonia is sometimes classified as people can get. Some common types of pneumonia are:
• nosocomial pneumonia, nosocomial infections associated with patients in the hospital. This type of pneumonia may be severe, partly because people were hospitalized sick or weak from the surgery, and partly because the bacteria in hospitals are often resistant to antibiotics.
• Ventilator-associated pneumonia: Patients should be on a ventilator in a position to help them breathe a higher risk of pneumonia.
• community-acquired pneumonia (CAP): CAP refers to pneumonia caused by disease organisms to people, not just in the hospital.
• aspiration pneumonia: medical term goal is to saliva, food or fluid in the airways and lungs. Aspiration pneumonia is common in elderly patients with Parkinson's disease and others who normally have difficulty swallowing. The material in the lungs can be caused by chemical irritation or inflammation of the lungs, or by wearing the bacteria that cause inflammation.
• Opportunistic pneumonia: an opportunistic infection is caused by people with a weakened immune system of micro-organisms that usually do not cause disease in people with healthy immune systems. People with AIDS are susceptible to certain types of pneumonia called PCP, which stands for Pneumocystis carinii. Pneumonia is classified as a fungus.
• chemical pneumonia. Inhalation of certain chemicals, pesticides, in particular, can cause pneumonia.
• Walking pneumonia: Walking pneumonia is an older term for pneumonia, it does not do enough patients, sick bed, which means they are good enough to go about their normal activities, regardless of cough and headache. Most cases of pneumonia caused by mycoplasma walk, a kind of bacteria or viruses.
• emerging diseases. Some emerging diseases such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and avian influenza (bird flu) can cause pneumonia in otherwise healthy people.

Pneumonia is one of the oldest diseases known to man, was first described by Hippocrates in the fifth century BC. Pneumonia can range from mild lung infection that required hospitalization for fatal diseases. In 1930, pneumonia is the leading cause of death in the United States. That is still the eighth most common cause, killing 60,000 people per year. Pneumonia can occur suddenly or gradually. The main symptoms are chest pain, fever, cough and severe yellow or pus-stained sputum (phlegm or mucus). In the early stages of pneumonia is sometimes confused with colds or flu. Severity of symptoms depends on the organism that causes disease and the basic level of health.

Bacterial pneumonia is often sudden sweating, severe chest pain, fever (up to 105 ° F/40.6 ° C), chills and a cough that produces green or yellow mucus. It can either alone or after viral infections such as colds or flu to develop.

Viral pneumonia is around half of all cases. Some cases are mild. In other cases, people have symptoms similar to flu: fever, muscle aches, headache and weakness. Within 12-36 hours, but many more patients can begin gasping for breath and coughing worse. Patients with viral pneumonia can develop secondary bacterial pneumonia. Caused by Mycoplasma pneumonia is usually mild and gradual. It is common in children and adolescents because it can spread rapidly in the living room, bedroom colleges and other community facilities. The most prominent symptom of mycoplasma pneumonia is a cough and sputum white. Some patients, nausea and vomiting.

Pneumonia is a widespread health problem in the general population and hospital patients and those in nursing homes. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), has 1.4 million people treated in U.S. hospitals each year from pneumonia, the average stay of five days. Approximately 2 percent of nursing home residents treated for pneumonia in an average year.

Pneumonia is the most common during the winter months in the U.S.. It affects more men than women and African Americans are more likely than members of other racial or ethnic groups. In developing countries, pneumonia is the leading cause of death in children. World Health Organization (WHO) believes that two million children die each year around the world, and that one in three deaths on the results of newborn pneumonia.

People at increased risk for pneumonia include:

• People with weakened immune systems, including people who are HIV positive, has received organ transplants or being treated for cancer with chemotherapy
• People with emphysema, cystic fibrosis or other lung
• People who smoke or alcohol
• People in hospital or a nursing home, particularly those on the market an artificial breathing apparatus
• People whose work exposes them to pesticides, large quantities of dust or other chemicals that irritate the lungs
• Many young adults and children older than sixty five
• People suffering from diabetes, kidney disease, sickle cell anemia or heart disease

Nursing plan for the signs and symptoms

Causes, types and main symptoms of pneumonia has been described in previous paragraphs. Other symptoms that some people with pneumonia experience includes:
• Rapid and shallow breathing
• Loss of appetite
• Mental confusion and disorientation (often elderly)
• unusual tiredness
• Excessive sweating and clammy skin

Nursing plan for the diagnosis

The diagnosis of pneumonia was made by a combination of history, physical examination and appropriate laboratory and imaging. Your doctor will need to know when the symptoms begin, the patient was recently hospitalized, he or she has a cold or flu and similar issues. Go listen to the breathing of the patient through a stethoscope and measure the temperature and pulse. Patients with pneumonia usually have abnormal friction, cracks or other loud noises that the doctor can hear. In addition, the number of breaths per minute is usually high.

Chest x-ray is usually ordered. Other tests include:
• Complete Blood Count (CBC). The unusually high white blood cell count is a common sign of infection.
• saliva test. Your doctor may obtain a saliva sample collection and sending the patient to the laboratory organisms that cause infections identified. Not everyone with pneumonia will produce saliva, not everyone produces saliva pneumonia.

Nursing Care Plan discussed

Treatment depends on the cause of pneumonia. Pneumonia caused by bacteria or mycoplasma were treated within seven to ten days of antibiotics. Viral infections can be treated with antibiotics in some cases your doctor antiviral drugs such as rimantadine, which are used to treat certain types of birds. Most patients can self-care home as required, and adequate rest, drink fluids and pain in the exchange of fever and headache to subside. It is important that people back home, back to work or normal pattern of activity too quickly, such as pneumonia to return. Repetition can be worse than the original infection. People who are seriously ill in hospital, breathing difficulties, higher levels of oxygen for respiration and intravenous antibiotics. They will receive follow-up x ray doctor if they are good enough to leave the hospital.


Prognosis depends on the pneumonia or an inflammation of the organism, leaving the patient's age and general health status and the elapsed time before the diagnosis and treatment. Young people who have been diagnosed and treated early May to recover after about ten days. Midlife could take several weeks to fully recover. Mycoplasma pneumonia takes a little longer than bacterial or viral pneumonia, sometimes much less than six weeks to go.

The prognosis for recovery is bad for the people who develop pneumonia ventilatorassociated (about 50 percent will die), or with a bacterial pneumonia, which is released into the circulation (approximately 20 percent will die). Doctors sometimes use rules Pneumonia Severity Index or PSI is the patient's chances for recovery evaluation. AMC is based on age, sex, vital signs and laboratory tests.

Nursing prevention plan

Important measure anyone can take the risk of pneumonia is reduced to quit smoking (or not start in the first place). The next step is vaccination. There is a specific vaccine called Pneumovax, which protects against a specific bacterium known as pneumococcus, a common cause of bacterial pneumonia. Pneumovax is recommended for children with sickle cell anemia, diabetes or other diseases in children and parents that the immune system, and for adults over fifty-five. Another version of the vaccine, called Prevnar, is now on children. Older people should get annual flu pictures, such as bacterial pneumonia is a common complication of flu.

The future

Pneumonia is likely to continue towards a common health problem, particularly because so many different reasons. On the one hand, the development of effective vaccines against influenza and pneumococcal has some positive effects in reducing the number of cases in children and adults in the United States. On the other hand, the development of resistant bacteria and the emergence of new diseases such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) facing new challenges for doctors and public health authorities.

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