Mediastinal Diseases

Right and left lungs, mediastinum overlying the medial portion of the remaining gap between plevralar is diyafragmalara opening extends from the upper thorax. Sternal border of the front, rear and side plevraların thoracic vertebrae are parts of the mediastinum. For easy identification of the mediastinum and diseases of the mediastinum is divided into four regions:

1. The upper mediastinum. The mediastinum is the space above the pericardium, the first four thoracic vertebrae behind the front and sides manubriyum Sterne mediastinum is bordered by plevraları.
2. Anterior mediastinum. And under the sternum is located behind the upper front Perikardiyum'un mediasten'in.
3. Middle mediastinum. Are at the upper mediastinum. Heart and perikardium are included here.
4. Rear mediastinum. Your heart is located behind and in front of the lower eight thoracic vertebralarının.
Mediastinum disease represents a small portion of thoracic diseases. Clinical and radiological diagnosis is difficult because of the similarities.
40% of malignant tumors of the masses in the mediastinum. And most of these malignant tumors are localized to the anterior and middle mediastinal compartments. In most of these diseases without clinical signs initially has a secret development. Routine chest X-ray feature is not present so many times is the expansion of the mediastinum. Detailed view is for the computer tomography.

Mediastinal Tumors

Tumors of the mediastinum mediastinum, mediastinitis or empyema by printing the vital organs and cause serious complications such as malignant degeneration.
Clinical symptoms. Benign tumors of the mediastinum without clinical signs or mild clinical symptoms develop suspicious. Benign tumors without signs of pain or mild pain or pressure sensitivity with blunt cesamete have access to very large. Generally, a malignant tumor-associated severe chest pains. The pain of the tumor brachial plexus, intercostal nerves, bone, and pleural pressure, or infiltrasyonuyla develops. As symptoms of the respiratory tract and lung parenkiması cough, dyspnea, stridor, orthopnea, and has syanoz. Phrenic nerve of the edition with the hiccup or diaphragmatic paralysis, recurrent laryngeal nerve in relation to the hoarseness, in relation to the vagus bradycardia, vomiting, and Horner's syndrome can develop. Esophagus tumor progression leads to dysphagia. Scroll to the vena cava tumor syanoz daraltmasiyle him, collateral venous dilatations, and edema develops. Vena cava obstruction symptoms of exertion or body bent only shows up when you initially.

Fever, zayıfllama, systemic symptoms such as fatigue and anemia than once a malignant tumor is related. Systemic symptoms are rare benign tumors. Sometimes benign tumors may cause symptoms of systemic infection, complications do.

Usually there is abnormal findings on physical examination or belirtisizdir. Significant complications occurred in a structure such as bronchial obstruction or pleural effusion, or if you have pressure on phrenic nerve is monitored physical examination findings. Increased anterior mediastinal tumors are located in the mediastinum matitesinin a common symptom related.


For the diagnosis of mediastinal tumors have a better radiological investigations, especially computer tomography. Rontgenoscopy this issue should not be neglected. Radiological examination of the mediastinum baryumla Esophagus tumor tumor-related vascular abnormalities in this organ provides a view of the interest gösterir.Magnetik resonance. If you have a tumor in the larynx or trachea attached onto the top opening up the chest moves with swallowing. These tumors are often of thyroid origin.

Benign tumors grow very slowly. Rapidly growing tumors are usually malignant nature. Physical examination reviews less important radiological diagnosis. However, abnormal physical examination findings followed a simple move of great importance. For example, increasing the neck and upper extremity venous pressure of superior vena cava obstruction syndrome observed in an objective finding. Circulation time (arm-language period) increase in the superior vena cava syndrome is an important finding in the other followed.

Audio cords paralysis if the suspicion must laryngoscopy. The belief that bronchoscopy should be performed if the mediastinal tumor bronchus. Aortography confirm the diagnosis in cases of aortic aneurysm.

Two features that are used in the diagnosis of mediastinal tumors: (1) location of the tumor, (2) characteristics of the tumor.

(1) of the tumor location. Substernal goitre, teratoma, dermoid cysts and tumors of the thymus usually show an anterior mediastinal localization. Most lymphomas seen in the middle mediastinum mediastinum region. Paravertebral posterior mediastinal neurogenic tumors usually are localized in the region.

(2) characteristics of the tumor. Teratoid and neurogenic tumors are usually unilateral. Fibroma, thymoma, and enlarged bilateral thyroid tumors. Adenoması thyroid tumors, and teratomas kuşkulanılır calcification occurs. Teratoid tumors can be seen in teeth and bone. Neurogenic tumors do erosion vertebrae. Boundaries are usually benign tumors thoroughly indefinite. Uncertain environments are likely to be malignant tumors, or well belirlenemiyen. Circles of the cysts are usually well indefinite. There is a view of lobular Teratomalarm. Substernal thyroid moves with swallowing.

Diagnosis and prognosis of mediastinal disease, mediastinoscopy is an important method for the evaluation. Mediastinoscopy is particularly useful in the diagnosis of malignant diseases.
Other abnormalities may be related to a tumor shadow in the mediastinum. For example, aortic aneurysm, enlargement of the esophagus, hiatal hermia, paravertebral abscess and tumor-like radiographic appearance may develop Haematoma.

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