(UTIs) are common and usually occurs as a result of the introduction of bacteria in the urinary tract of the urethra. Approximately 20% to 25% of UTIs in life, and acute urinary tract infections account for about 7 million visitors a year for health care for young women. Approximately 20% of women experience UTI recurrence developed. Women are more prone to UTIs than men due to natural anatomical variations. The female urethra is only about 1-2 inches long, and the male urethra is 7-8 cm long. The female urethra is closer to the anus of the male urethra in women increases risk of faecal contamination. Traffic in women exposed also increases the risk of infection.
Urinary reflux is one of the reasons that bacteria spreads to the urinary tract. Vesicourethral reflux happens when the pressure increases the bladder by coughing or sneezing, and insists the urine into the urethra. When the pressure returns to normal, the urine goes back into the urinary bladder, and bacteria from the urethra. In vesicoureteral reflux, urinary flow from the bladder back into one or both ureters, the bacteria from the bladder into the ureters and spread of the infection. If left untreated, can lead to chronic infection, pyelonephritis, urinary tract infections and even systemic sepsis and septic shock. If the infection reaches the kidneys and can cause permanent kidney damage occurs, leading to acute and chronic renal failure.
The pathogens responsible for approximately 90% of urinary tract infections is Escherichia coli. Other organisms commonly found in the digestive tract and contamination of the genitourinary tract may cause Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, group B beta-hemolytic streptococci, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella and Serratia species. Two reasons for the increasing urinary tract infections in the United States, Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Candida albicans chance. Predisposing factors include damage to the urethra since birth, catheterization, or surgery, reduces the frequency of urination, other diseases such as diabetes and female sexual activity and some forms of contraception (bad fit diaphragm, spermicide use).
Care Plan assessment and physical examination
Patients with urinary tract infections are a variety of symptoms ranging from mild to severe. Typical symptoms of one or more of the following: frequency, burning, urgency, nocturia, blood or pus in the urine and suprapubic fullness. If the infection has led to the kidneys, can be a pain in the groin (including costovertebral tenderness) and low temperature,
Ask the patient about risk factors, including the recent urinary catheterization, recent pregnancy or childbirth, neurological disorders, hypovolemia, often sexual activity and the presence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Ask the patient's current sexual practices and contraception, described as ill-fitting diaphragm, contraceptive use and certain sexual practices such as anal sex site on the patient's risk of urinary tract infection.
Physical examination often subtle in patients with urinary tract infections, although some patients costovertebral angle pain, pyelonephritis had. If the patient fever, chills and signs of systemic infection. Check your urine color, clarity, aroma and character should be. Surveillance of sexually transmitted diseases is recommended as part of the test.
Urinary tract infections rarely cause a violation of the patient's normal daily activities. The infection is usually acute and respond quickly to treatment with antibiotics. Under the guidelines, the fluid intake and frequent urination-related increase in a problem for some patients in the restrictive environment. Traffic problems can cause a temporary reduction of sexual activity, in particular STD diagnosed.
The plan for the diagnosis of primary nurses nurses: changes in urinary infection associated with the move.
Care plan interventions and treatment
Acid-ash diet can be supported. The diet of meat, eggs, cheese, dried plums, the cranberries, prunes and whole grains increase the acidity of the urine. Eating is not allowed on this diet includes soft drinks, anything with baking soda or powder, fruit, other than those listed above, all except the vegetables, grains and legumes, and dairy products. As the effects of some medications, urinary tract infections are less acidic urine (nitrofurantoin), revise the guidelines for the diet of patients.
Urinary tract infections treated with antibiotics specific to the invading organism. Typically, 7 - to 10-day course of antibiotics were prescribed, but shortened and large districts with a single dose, is under investigation. Most older patients have a full 7 - to 10-day treatment, although caution in their control because of the possibility of reduced renal capacity. Women treated with antibiotics a vaginal yeast infection treatment during the contract review signs and symptoms (cheese discharge and perineal itching and swelling), and supports women's over-the-counter antifungal purchase or primary care for the connection, if treatment is indicated.
Encourage patients with infections, increase fluid intake frequent urination, which is stagnant and mechanical waves of the lower urinary tract to achieve reduced. Strategies include increasing the limit recurrence of vitamin C and cranberry juice drink, clean front to back after bowel movements (women), regular emptying of the bladder bubbling pools and baths to avoid wearing cotton underwear and avoid tight clothing such as jeans. These strategies are useful for some patients, although no studies that support the effectiveness of these procedures.
Encourage the patient over-the-counter painkillers, unless contraindications to mild discomfort, but all antibiotics to take the entire course of treatment is completed. If the patient had perineal discomfort, sitz baths or warm compresses on the perineum can increase comfort.
Nursing guidelines for discharge planning and home care
Treatment of urinary tract infections occur in the patient. To teach the patient understand the proposed treatment, including medication, dosage, route, and adverse effects. Explain the signs and symptoms of complications such as pyelonephritis and the need for follow-up before leaving the area. Explain the importance of completing the full course of antibiotics even if symptoms diminish or disappear. If the patient develops gastrointestinal symptoms, encouraging the patient to continue, but taking drugs to take with food or milk, unless contraindicated. Advise patient that drug with phenazopyridine urine orange.