Lymphocytes are special cells in the immune system of their originality, the surface membrane of the somatic genetic or unknown origin and owe their antigen receptors.
Each has a different sub-types of T and B lymphocytes are two types of lymphocytes.
a) T lymphocytes, the differing influence of thymus cells. The differentiation of T lymphocytes in the thymus or during transition from direct, or indirectly through humoral factors occurs. (PHA) blast transformation under the influence of these cells are known, delayed on the basis of extreme sensitivity in type responsible for cellular immunity.
T lymphocytes, has a characteristic surface antigens. These cells are what carry immunoglobulins, nor secrete large quantities; immunological aspects show the effects of establishing direct contact with the target cell.
Life of two types of lymphocytes can be distinguished by looking. These are the average life of 4-5 days, the short-lived lymphocytes, memory lymphocytes and anamnestic reactions known as the long-lived lymphocytes play an important role.
Contact antigen activated T lymphocytes as they pass, passes, and blast transformation of cellular immunological reactions responsible for producing the offspring-cells disintegrate.
T lymphocytes stimulated by antigen, and various metabolic reactions, collectively known as, many biologically active mediator provides. Capillary permeability factor, chemotactic factor, macrophage activation factor, cytotoxic factor and interferon in addition, this way.
b) B lymphocytes, these lymphocytes in the bone marrow of humans, only has a short half-life is about 4-5 days. B lymphocytes, multiplying the original antigenic stimulus creates antibodies. IgM immunoglobulins or antibodies, including in particular in terms of synthesis and release of highly specialized cells, plasma cells, B lymphocytes occurs. These receptors recognize antigens, lymphocyte membrane that connects the terminal as there is not a complete immunoglobulins.
Plasma cells, IgM, IgG, IgD, IgA and IgE immunoglobulins, including different types of secretions.
Antibodies secreted by plasma cells, virus neutralization, lysis of some organisms, such as facilitation, sometimes with the complement system to be effective are the protective functions.
IgD and IgE concentrations in plasma is very low. Recent studies also showed that B lymphocytes simultaneously both IgM and IgD.
Lenfositlerime of T and B immune responses (cellular, humoral) is in close contact with each other:
T and B lymphocytes that occur through the direct interaction between the specific antigenic factors: antigen, made by T lymphocytes, a factor combining the water-soluble form a bridge between these cells and lymphocytes, so he takes him by making it easier to connect to the surface of macrophages.
Non-specific antigen, the effect of water-soluble mediators, on the positive regulatory effects on B lymphocytes and their antibody-secreting, to turn into mature plasma cells (helper effect).
B cells that cause proliferation of allogeneic factor (AEF) to turn into plasma cells and B cells to TRF (T cell replacement factor), known today, the most important factors.
In contrast to the effect of T-helper, suppressor (suppressor) T cells, certain B and T cell-specific immune paralysis, sometimes leading to depression by affecting features. Thus, these cells pre-cells, B lymphocytes or cytotoxic T cell differentiation event of a negative regulatory effect on the show. This effect, either directly, or by suppressing the functions of T cells takes place.
In contrast to T-helper lymphocytes, suppressor T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes affect, directly or proliferation of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte cells play a role in helper T cells, pre-prints. In this way, prevent the formation of the immune response.
In addition, suppressor T lymphocytes mature in plasmocyte prevent immunoglobulin secretion.