Pregnancy Vaccination: Indications and contraindications
Vaccination during pregnancy
Immunization of pregnant women, will not harm the fetus, is a question often asked. Some vaccines are not safe during pregnancy and, ideally, the use of full immunization, must be made before pregnancy. Will Do, however, pregnant women or trips to foreign countries due to epidemics or frequent vaccination may be faced with an indication of ...
Generally speaking, the indications for the vaccine in pregnant women, according to 3 categories are considered in danger.
Vaccines during pregnancy
Tetanus, influenza, (Saiki inactivated vaccine), and cholera vaccines in pregnant women can be dangerous and even in some cases, the recommended vaccines.
low influenza immunization of pregnant women could be due to influenza infection, in pregnancy, any suggested.
Tetanus vaccination during pregnancy
Obstetrics and umbilical tetanus, is now almost never seen in European countries.
However, these diseases, a large number of African, Asian and South American countries has long been a very common and important public health problem that continues to be diseases. Morbidity statistics in India, 80-30% of cases of tetanus treated in hospitals show that much of the newborn babies.
According to the results of the mortality study World Health Organization (WHO), two of the 14 countries in the region of 500 000 deaths each year, neonatal tetanus (NNT) was calculated to be due. Given that 85% of mortality in these countries the number of cases of neonatal tetanus in the year, is around 600 000.
Immunity from mother to child, passes through the placenta. The immune status of the new nature, is basically identical to mother and a child's immune high tetanus antibody titers, even 5 weeks after birth is strong enough.
For the prevention of neonatal tetanus vaccination of pregnant women, was first proposed in 1927 by RAMON14.
Since then many studies, maternal immunity in newborn infants vaccinated during pregnancy confirmed that passes, and harmless. Maternal antibodies to pass through the placenta to the fetus and to tell you that this is caused by the vaccine needs to be done.
Expanded immunization program within the framework of the WHO, the vaccine in women with child-bearing age, pregnant women, especially how much importance.
Adsorbed vaccine used features should be kind and highly antigenic. The first dose should be applied in the early stages of pregnancy. Should be left for a long break between the first and second dose and second dose at the latest, should be made 2 weeks before the expected date of birth. The first dose later time, when performed within 10 weeks prior to the date of birth, it shortened the time between the second dose.
Neonatal tetanus prophylaxis, starting from birth to 4 to 2 weeks before the vaccine can be provided. Not provide any protection in a shorter period of time, but do not have another solution obtained, should be applied. The higher incidence of newborn tetanus, tetanus vaccine boosters in the form of implementation, in girls and women of childbearing age have an absolute need. In the review of present knowledge, the following four problems are yet unable to find a solution:
- A minimal length of time between two injections (4 weeks according to WHO)
- Given the total dose, the vaccine is associated: 25-50 LF titration with 2, or 3 doses of 5-10 Lf adsorbed titration, seems sufficient.
- Boosters rhythm
- The concentration of antigenic boosters
usually need a booster 1 year after the second application, then it must be repeated every 5-10 years. Booster pregnant, pregnancy, 4 should be applied as early as the month and at the latest, one month before the date of birth must be made.
Total number of injections should not exceed 4; that should be done during the 2-dose primary vaccination, 2 doses nature of the booster.
According to a study conducted by WHO in Africa, 18% of vaccinated pregnant women, Continental America 10%, 16% in Southeast Asia and Eastern Mediterranean region is around 4%.
Poliomiyelit applied motive ,vaccine immune effective and well tolerated in pregnant women.
Abortion after injection of this vaccine (low) were shown to have a rate increase.
During the cholera epidemic or endemic cholera vaccine in France, parts of the journey will only apply to women.
This vaccine is not recommended by WHO since 1974. The vaccine made a woman pregnant, is not dangerous according to the rules of international certificate of vaccination, the vaccination process, 6 days after the validity period of 6 months and it keeps gaining.
Hepatitis B vaccine in pregnant women during pregnancy is required only in exceptional cases and not carry much value. The danger of infection is high in endemic areas may be required when traveling.
Vaccines should not be used during pregnancy
Laws, live viral vaccines during pregnancy, making obstacle, because any of neonatal malformation. they can be held responsible.
The real danger created only if the primary flower vaccine, but an infection of smallpox is deleted from the earth, implemented since 1977.
Pregnancy and vaccination
Rubella vaccine, rubella infection in women planning to become parents, and the first vaccine used in the prevention of abnormalities in the embryo may develop later.
Rubella vaccine in women of childbearing age only if it is within the next 2 months pregnant when the danger should be zero. There are two reasons for this: The first reason is to destroy the possibility of the vaccine to the fetus, the second reason is the rubella vaccine during pregnancy, congenital abnormalities, then encountered in charge shall maintain any.
Despite all the suggestions sometimes a woman can be vaccinated at the beginning of pregnancy. In this case, whether the vaccine virus can not cross the placenta and fetus at the end of the questions arises whether or not contaminated. 346 women born in this way is known vaccinated, There were no major malformations.
Our information shows that a low risk of malformation and the rate of major malformation rate is explained by the chance factor of 3% is not much different from outside and within the first 3 months of pregnancy, rubella virus in children of mothers in the area are far below the 20% rate. OPENING in the United States and France BOUE'nin suggestions, rubella vaccine is made of, medical abortion is not a valid reason. However, prospective parents and doctors the final decision still belongs.
Yellow fever vaccine, the disease is prevalent in endemic areas or who will travel to the implementation of a vaccine to pregnant women.
All around the world, this vaccine studies, which show that gestational age of bidding in danger. However, the U.S. CDC (Centers for Diseases Control) and the Pasteur Institute in France, making this vaccine in pregnant women, as long as the epidemiological conditions opposes mandatory.
Switzerland and Denmark VVUST and Burg-WOLF7 TULINIUS and Zachau-CHRISTIANSEN21 by the epidemiological and clinical research studies, and also the results showed that oral poliomiyelit vaccine safe for the fetus. Oral polio vaccine can be connected to today, there is no known embryonic or fetal pathology, and the expectant mother of millions around the world, in this way throughout.
During pregnancy is unnecessary, and only in rare cases, vaccines
Here's a list that none of the vaccines, there is a teratogenic effect.
Pertussis vaccine, often causes severe allergic reactions and fever, one of these reactions, result in low or premature birth. In particular, it is a rare infection, given the whooping cough vaccine which in pregnant women, does not seem very wise.
Diphtheria vaccine is tolerated by adults is relatively poor and only in emergency situations should be rare nowadays.
Rabies vaccination is only done if there is definite infection.
Animal rabies vaccines produced in the brains of the last few years, abandoned, and instead of them because they cause reactions produced in cell cultures and inactivated vaccines do not contain any nerve cells have been used. Human diploid cell rabies vaccine in the culture, completely effective and not dangerous. This is an extremely dangerous disease, rabies vaccine, rabies or bitten by a dog suspected of rabies requires every pregnant woman be made.
Although BCG vaccine is harmless, is not recommended during pregnancy. Anti tuberculosis chemotherapy can be applied in case of infection.
Meningococcal A and C vaccine, the most common type of meningococcal meningitis due to group B is not used in Europe. But the journey to be made endemicity areas, the vaccine should be applied. These vaccines are not dangerous, and pregnant women can be made in full.
The typhoid-paratyphoid vaccine pneumococcal vaccine, and also, pregnant women are unnecessary.