Vascular structure of the rectum

Rectum Arteries


1 - Superior rectal (hemorrhoidal) artery: branch of internal iliac arteries and nourish the rectum.

2 - Medial rectal (hemorrhoidal) artery: the internal iliac artery is a branch of the middle portion of the rectum, nourishes the skin.

3 - ─░nferioral rectal (hemorrhoidal) artery: the internal pudendal artery is a branch of the rectum inferiorunu feeds. In addition, the branches of the internal pudantalis artery nourishes the anus. Arteries anastomoses do with each other.


Venous circulation


1. Superior rectal vein, the inferior mesenteric vein is poured.

2. Medial rectal vein, internal iliac vein is poured.
3. Inferior rectal vein flows into the internal pudendal vein. The inferior mesenteric vein, portal vein, internal iliac vein, inferior vena cava is poured. These veins each other made, anastomoses As a result rectum around portokaval anastomaz occur.



Lymphatic drainage of the rectum


Lymph vessels in the upper part of the rectal area extends along the superior rectal arteries. Pararectal lymph nodes and lymph nodes in the lower part of the sigmoid Mesocolon rises through the inferior mesenteric lymph nodes. The anal canal and rectum 1 / 3 lower part of the internal iliac lymph nodes draining.


Innervation of the rectum


And the inferior mesenteric plexus and pelvic sympathetic fibers, parasympathetic fibers 2-4. sacral nerves in your income. Rectal nerves, inferior-superior rectal arteries by following these make.


Histology of the rectum


There are four functional layer of the rectum.


1. Mucosa, the epithelium, the supporting components of the lamina propria and the mucosa consists of a thin musklaris. Plica in the mucosa of the rectum, and villi are not tracked. Enterocytes, goblet cells and rich. Plasma cells and lymphocytes in the lamina propria of the submucosa is extending.


2. Submucosa, mucosa and supports the collagen occurs. Lymphatics, nerves, and contains vascular elements. Parasympathetic ganglia, muscularis mucosa, mucosal glands, and sends branches. This is called the submucosal plexus Meissner plexusua.


3. Muscularis propria, the inner circular layer and outer layer in the form of langutudinal ordered structures composed of smooth muscle. Auerbeach plexus is located between these two layers, called the parasympathetic ganglion.

4. Serosa: the outer layer. Major blood vessels and nerves wraps. The top part of the peritonla, the lower part of the mesothelium (simple squamous epithelium) surrounded.


Line and valve connected to the base with the base of the anal canal are 8-10 small. These valves, posterior anal sinus (crypt) is called the mucous glands listed our small pockets. Mezotelle line paved the anal canal. The thickness of the inner circular layer of the anus at the level of the internal anal sphincter generates muskular─▒n propria. Sphincter muscle layer of connective tissue lying on the right Longutudinal sticks. Creates the main external sphincter and levator ani muscles into the correct line extends.


Physiology of the rectum;


Defecation reflex, rectal faeces from request defecation creates his head. 2 In this sense and 3 visceral afferent fibers reach the sacral segments. Works of local reflex arcs. Reaches the brain, consisting of rectal tension. Peristalsis and relaxes the sphincter muscle is generated by the sudden erigentesler Nerve. Pudendalis inhibits nerve somatic motor neurons. Muskulus externus moment to relax. Externus muscle contraction as a conscious means of corticospinal process can be stopped suddenly.

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