Esophageal Cancer Diagnosis

Esophageal cancer is not specific clinical signs and physical examination findings do not in practice. Therefore, the diagnosis is made ​​based on inspection methods help.


The main procedures of esophageal cancer;


1. The story and physical examination

2. Chest x-ray, complete blood count, biochemistry detail

3. Double-contrast esophagogram

4. Biopsy

5. Thoracic and upper abdominal CT or MRI, 18FDG-PET

6. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)


Barium X-ray of the esophagus: an oral barium is given. Location of the lesion, the length, anatomical location, and also gives information about the stomach. SCC, the most common polypoid, ulcerative, infiltrative and superficial spread may occur to a different view. Also in this X-ray and the degree of luminal stenosis or stricture, and fistulas can show if any.


Endoscopy: an indispensable diagnostic tool. Endoscopy, erosion, edema, and a red field, a polyp or mass in the form of images, gives a slightly raised mucosa. In addition, the staining technique can also be used. Lugol's solution and normal mucosa malignant region while the black-brown paint does not hold a view. Thus, increases the chances of tumor detection. Infiltrating tumors of the esophagus wall and lumen of circular contains the almost complete

close to collapse.


Reaches as high as 100% of the diagnosis made ​​by endoscopic cytology of the cell.


Endoscopy is also used in order to provide some palliation in inoperable cases. Dilatation of the tumor, the tumor necrosis with laser or electric current to the bipolar, palliative endoscopic stent placement into the tumor creates initiatives.


Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS): the relationship between the tumor of the esophagus wall and neighboring organs, is superior to CT in determining lymph node metastases. In addition, the format of lymph glands, and internal echo gives information about the structure of the edge. The lesion depth of invasion, lymph node involvement, and evaluation of environmental organ biopsy can be done if necessary. So reliable, accurate TNM staging is used.


Computed Tomography (CT): Esophageal cancer is a common diagnostic tool for the determination of local and distant spread.


Positron Emission Tomography (PET): Early-stage disease, more structural abnormalities may occur. PET is also impaired in the anatomical structures in the presence of malignant disease, helps to rule out. Switching scheme is shown in approximately 15% of patients treated.


Bronchoscopy: Esophageal cancer is a major part of the trachea or bronchi shows propagation. Choi et al. propagation of such a study conducted in 34% of the cases have deduced.


Laparoscopy: detection of esophageal cancer, liver and peritoneal metastases, laparoscopy has an important place. Peritoneal metastases detected by CT and ultrasound have been identified by laparoscopy.



Laparoscopic ultrasonography (LUS): Peritoneal, diaphragm, the celiac lymph nodes, liver, stomach wall by evaluating the N1 and M1 gastrohepatic ligament, and the biopsy can be performed to detect disease.

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