Muir Syndrome

Multiple skin tumors and multiple benign and malignant tumors of the gastrointestinal tract is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by. In this syndrome, including the period after menopause in women is very high risk of developing breast cancer. There are factors that increase the risk of developing breast cancer in women.

Breast cancer is one hundred times more frequently in women than men are. If breast cancer is rare under the age of twenty. Gradually increase in incidence after 20 years and makes a plateau between the ages of 45-55. Rapid increase in incidence observed after the age of 55. Especially in women with a family history of breast cancer in mother or sisters have a higher risk. The disease an average of 10 - 12 years earlier exits.

Against the risk of developing breast cancer in breast cancer patients has increased significantly. The increased incidence of breast cancer in families with bilateral breast cancer cases. Especially families with bilateral breast cancer seen at a young age increases the risk of getting breast cancer. Pre-cellular atypia in breast biopsies, atypical ductal hyperplasia, lobular neoplasia, increased risk of breast cancer in women in the juvenile papillomatosis.

Blood group (0) in those with benign breast disease, ovarian cysts and breast cancer have been observed at a young age. Many studies have shown that delayed menarche decreased the risk of breast cancer by 1/3-1/2. 2-fold increase in the incidence of menarche 12 years ago. Early menarche is a risk factor for the development of breast cancer. No birth increased incidence in women. The first pregnancy after age 30 in women with breast cancer risk than those with a first pregnancy after the age of 18. Also be observed as an increased incidence of late post-menopausal women.

High estrogen and progesterone hormone levels increase the risk of breast cancer was observed. Low-dose hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal period showed no significant increase in risk. However, more long-term use of high-dose hormone 10-15 years and 2-3 times increased risk of breast cancer was observed. 25% of women taking hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women increase in breast density were determined. 36% of cases, breast pain, hormone replacement therapy induces 17-32% cases of mammographic changes are tracked. Significant difference between the geographic regions in terms of the incidence of breast cancer is seen in the Netherlands 24.19 per hundred thousand, hundred thousand in the United States 21:38, while the Japanese women was calculated as 3.76 per hundred thousand. Environmental factors that enabled the U.S. to increase in incidence was observed in women who immigrated to Japan. Those exposed to pesticides increases the risk of breast cancer (63). Dietary fat and cholesterol intake is very important. Per capita has a direct correlation between fat consumption and breast cancer. This relationship is post-menopausal women, more severe than in premenopausal women. Postmenopausal obesity and chronic alcohol use increases the risk (63). Radiation risk factor in breast cancer. Exposed to ionizing radiation after the atomic bomb survivor, who applied to radiotherapy due to postpartum mastitis, followed by fluoroscopy with the cause of tuberculosis patients exposed to radiation and increased risk of breast cancer has been observed in animal models (64). In recent years, genetic studies, especially genetic factors in the etiology of premenopausal breast cancer showed that had come forward. Those with the mutated BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes significantly increased risk of breast cancer. These genes are 17 and 13 genes located on chromosomes and those with breast cancer is approximately 85%. 5% of all breast cancers in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes were found positive.

Retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene is a recessive gene on chromosome 13, premenopausal breast cancer that is caused by loss of chromosome heterogeneity. As with colon cancer, 17 chromosome suppressor gene p53 is an important development in the breast cancer gene, the gene is shown to be correlated with loss of breast cancer. Again, erb-B2 oncogene shown that important information in determining the prognosis of breast and ovarian cancer.

Major risk factors for breast cancer, family history, previous breast cancer, the story is, as a genetic predisposition, and BCAC2 BCRA1 carry genes, previously passed to other benign breast diseases.

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