Cystine stones: the enzyme due to a lack of cystinuria and cystine stone formation is increased excretion occurs. Is 1-2%. Cystine stones, urinary relatively acidic properties. Primary and secondary hyperoxaluria and stone formation can also be seen as a result.
1.5 cm, small stones had been recommended to be treated with ESWL or percutaneous nephrolithotomy and ureteroscopy for stones larger than 1.5 is recommended. However, 73% of patients relapse within 5 years, have been reported.
Xanthine stones: Very rare stones. Is the result of metabolic disorders. The enzyme xanthine oxidase, xanthine stones in an autosomal recessive Deficiency occurs. Radio opaque a large part of the stones. Cystine stones, xanthine and uric acid stones.
Matrix stones: These stones are calcifications scattered in places. In the presence of stones is collecting views on the system mass matrix. Take place where the format, create view.
The causes of stone formation is still unclear. There are various theories about the formation of stones. These crystallization, epitaxy, matrix, and combined with the lack of inhibitory theories.