Coronary Artery Imaging Methods
Conventional Coronary Angiography
Usually the femoral artery access site of coronary arteries using the arterial catheter to send and display of various aspects of the coronary arteries under fluoroscopy with contrast medium is provided. It is accepted that the gold standard method of assessing coronary artery lumen. Also, if necessary, therapeutic interventions such as balloon dilation and stent placement can be made of operations. Complication rate of about 0.08%, 0.15% mortality and morbidity rate of 1.5% is present in some complications may require emergency surgery. Interferential process in situations that require the patient's dose may be increased up to 3 times compared to angiography in diagnostic.
Thanks to advancing technology by developing small-scale intravascular ultrasound transducers in clinical use has found. Ranging from 2.9 to 3.5 French in diameter, 20-40 MHz transducers with the lumen of the coronary arteries, artery wall, plaque size and morphology can be analyzed. High degree of invasiveness, cost of excess, the process and the need for coronary catheterization to evaluate only the proximal limits the availability of this method.
Electron Beam Tomography
Electron beam tomography (EBT) of hard X-ray source and detector fixed structure consists of tungsten. In 1979, was found by Boyd et al. Old IT equipment is one of the most important factors limiting the speed of the tube rotates around the patient, the rotation of the cables were connected to the tube and detectors. Unlike other IT devices in EDT have mechanical moving parts. Produced under the tungsten targets in an electron beam directed at the patient. Fan-shaped x-rays through the patient's body, the patient placed on a 210 ° angle, more than 3,000 collected by the detector. EBT in a period of 40-60 units from 1.5 to 3 mm to 100 milliseconds, it is possible to take cross-sections. All transactions are made during breath-holding only one patient. In addition, motion artifact can be minimized by using EBT with the ECG trigger. The earliest CT evaluation of the coronary artery was done with the 1980 EBT
Coronary Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Coronary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in selected patient populations, the detection of coronary artery anomalies, and to be characterized, the evaluation of coronary artery aneurysms and bypass-graft patency in order to evaluate the clinical use today, has taken place. Long examination time, the disadvantages such as low spatial resolution, as well as the most important advantage is the absence of radiation. The sensitivity of MR imaging in detecting coronary stenosis 65-86%, the specificity ranged from 88-97%
MSCT Coronary Angiography
Computerized tomography (CT) is the first intellectual father Alan Cormack was the first clinical applications in 1967 by Hounsfield Godsfrey. Initial CT device, the elapsed time for 5 minutes going through the formation of a cross sectional view. Several generations of technology with the development of IT equipment is manufactured in the late 1980s by Kalender et al Spiral CT has been used clinically. Spiral CT gantry rotation rate, has been an important factor in the development of MSCT. IRs in the 1990s had been used in the first detector is a 2 in the years following the z-axis detector has been introduced more and more. MSCT with the z-axis, multi-detector system; more volume than thin slices can be scanned during a single gantry rotation, has been helping to deliver fast and high-quality images. Emerging technology, MSCT, CAD has been used for diagnostic purposes. With MSCT calcium scoring, CT angiography, and ventricular function analysis can be made. Coronary artery calcium scoring can be classified with the risk of coronary artery disease. In addition, the anatomy of the coronary artery, MSCT can be performed with the assessment of calcified plaques.